The doctoral thesis of I.Hörr (1999) describes the first successful in vivo expression of a protein after vaccination with messenger-RNA. Antigen expression and simultaneous immune stimulation via Toll-like receptor TLR7 induce humoral and T-cell mediated immune responses. Stabilized mRNA vaccines coding for tumor and virus antigens are in several clinical trials (CureVac). The industrial production of larger quantities of therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines is in progress.
I.Hoerr, R.Obst, H.-G. Rammensee, and G.Jung (2000). In vivo application of RNA leads to the induction of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and antibodies, Eur.J.Immunol, 30, 1-7.
B.Scheel, S.Braedel, J.Probst, J.-P. Carralot, H. Wagner, H. Schild, G. Jung, H.-G. Rammensee, and S. Pascolo (2004). Immunostimulating capacities of stabilized RNA molecules, Eur. J. Immunol. 34, 537-547.
R. Teufel, J.-P. Carralot, B. Scheel, J. Probst, S. Walter, G. Jung, H.-G. Rammensee, and S. Pascolo (2005). Human Peripheral Blood Monuclear Cells Transfected with Messenger RNA Stimulate Antigen-specific Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in vitro, Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 62, 1755-1762.
J. Probst, S. Brechtel, B. Scheel, I. Hörr, G. Jung, H.-G. Rammensee, and S. Pascolo (2006). Characterization of the Ribonuclease Activity on the Skin Surface, Genetic Vaccines and Therapy 4:4 (1-9).